Introducing Jasper as an In Process Command Bus for .Net

A couple weeks ago I wrote a blog post called If you want your OSS project to be successful… about trying to succeed with open source development efforts. One of the things I said was “don’t go dark” when you’re working on an OSS project. Not only did I go “dark” on Jasper for quite awhile, I finally rolled out its 1.0 release during the worst global pandemic in a century. So all told, Jasper is by no means an exemplary project model for anyone to follow who’s trying to succeed with an OSS project.

This sample application is also explained and demonstrated in the documentation page Jasper as a Mediator.

Jasper is a new open source tool that can be used as an in process “command bus” inside of .Net Core 3 applications. Used locally, Jasper can provide a superset of the “mediator” functionality popularized by MediatR that many folks like using within ASP.Net MVC Core applications to simplify controller code by offloading most of the processing to separate command handlers. Jasper certainly supports that functionality, but also adds rich options for asynchronous processing commands with built in resiliency mechanisms.

Part of the reason why Jasper went cold was waiting for .Net Core 3.0 to be released. With the advent of .Net Core 3.0, Jasper was somewhat re-wired to support the new generic HostBuilder for bootstrapping and configuration. With this model of bootstrapping, Jasper can easily be integrated into any kind of .Net Core application (MVC Core application, web api, windows service, console app, “worker” app) that uses the HostBuilder.

Let’s jump into seeing how Jasper could be integrated into a .Net Core Web API system. All the sample code I’m showing here is on GitHub in the “InMemoryMediator” project. InMemoryMediator uses EF Core with Sql Server as its backing persistence. Additionally, this sample shows off Jasper’s support for the “Outbox” pattern for reliable messaging without having to resort to distributed transactions.

To get started, generated a project with the dotnet new webapi template. From there, I added some extra Nuget dependencies:

  1. Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.SqlServer — because we’re going to use EF Core with Sql Server as the backing persistence for this service
  2. Jasper — this is the core library, and all that you would need to use Jasper as an in process command bus
  3. Jasper.Persistence.EntityFrameworkCore — extension library to add Jasper’s “Outbox” and transactional support to EF Core
  4. Jasper.Persistence.SqlServer — extension library to add persistence for the “Outbox” support
  5. Swashbuckle.AspNetCore — just to add Swagger support

Your First Jasper Handler

Before we get into bootstrapping, let’s just start with how to build a Jasper command handler and how that would integrate with an MVC Core Controller. Keeping to a very simple problem domain, let’s say that we’re capturing, creating, and tracking new Item entities like this:

public class Item
{
    public string Name { get; set; }
    public Guid Id { get; set; }
}

So let’s build a simple Jasper command handler that would process a CreateItemCommand message, persist a new Item entity, and then raise an ItemCreated event message that would be handled by Jasper as well, but asynchronously somewhere off to the side in a different through. Lastly, we want things to be reliable, so we’re going to introduce Jasper’s integration of Entity Framework Core for “Outbox” support for the event messages being raised at the same time we create new Item entities.

First though, to put things in context, we’re trying to get to the point where our controller classes mostly just delegate to Jasper through its ICommandBus interface and look like this:

public class UseJasperAsMediatorController : ControllerBase
{
    private readonly ICommandBus _bus;

    public UseJasperAsMediatorController(ICommandBus bus)
    {
        _bus = bus;
    }

    [HttpPost("/items/create")]
    public Task Create([FromBody] CreateItemCommand command)
    {
        // Using Jasper as a Mediator
        return _bus.Invoke(command);
    }
}

You can find a lot more information about what Jasper can do as a local command bus in the project documentation.

When using Jasper as a mediator, the controller methods become strictly about the mechanics of reading and writing data to and from the HTTP protocol. The real functionality is now in the Jasper command handler for the CreateItemCommand message, as coded with this Jasper Handler class:

public class ItemHandler
{
    // This attribute applies Jasper's transactional
    // middleware
    [Transactional]
    public static ItemCreated Handle(
        // This would be the message
        CreateItemCommand command,

        // Any other arguments are assumed
        // to be service dependencies
        ItemsDbContext db)
    {
        // Create a new Item entity
        var item = new Item
        {
            Name = command.Name
        };

        // Add the item to the current
        // DbContext unit of work
        db.Items.Add(item);

        // This event being returned
        // by the handler will be automatically sent
        // out as a "cascading" message
        return new ItemCreated
        {
            Id = item.Id
        };
    }
}

You’ll probably notice that there’s no interface and mandatory base class usage in the code up above. Similar to MVC Core, Jasper will auto-discover the handler classes and message handling methods from your code through type scanning. Unlike MVC Core and every other service bus kind of tool .Net I’m aware of, Jasper only depends on naming conventions rather than base classes or interfaces.

The only bit of framework “stuff” at all in the code above is the [Transactional] attribute that decorates the handler class. That adds Jasper’s own middleware for transaction and outbox support around the message handling to just that message. At runtime, when Jasper handles the CreateItemCommand in that handler code up above, it:

  • Sets up an “outbox” transaction with the EF Core ItemsDbContextservice being passed into the Handle() method as a parameter
  • Take the ItemCreated message that “cascades” from the handler method and persists that message with ItemsDbContext so that both the outgoing message and the new Item entity are persisted in the same Sql Server transaction
  • Commits the EF Core unit of work by calling ItemsDbContext.SaveChangesAsync()
  • Assuming that the transaction succeeds, Jasper kicks the new ItemCreated message into its internal sending loop to speed it on its way. That outgoing event message could be handled locally in in-memory queues or sent out via external transports like Rabbit MQ or Azure Service Bus

If you’re interested in what the code above would look like without any of Jasper’s middleware or cascading message conventions, see the section near the bottom of this post called “Do it All Explicitly Controller”.

So that’s the MVC Controller and Jasper command handler, now let’s move on to integrating Jasper into the application.

Bootstrapping and Configuration

This is just an ASP.Net Core application, so you’ll probably be familiar with the generated Program.Main() entry point. To completely utilize Jasper’s extended command line support (really Oakton.AspNetCore), I’ll make some small edits to the out of the box generated file:

public class Program
{
    // Change the return type to Task to communicate
    // success/failure codes
    public static Task Main(string[] args)
    {
        return CreateHostBuilder(args)

            // This replaces Build().Start() from the default
            // dotnet new templates
            .RunJasper(args);
    }

    public static IHostBuilder CreateHostBuilder(string[] args) =>
        Host.CreateDefaultBuilder(args)

            // You can do the Jasper configuration inline with a 
            // Lambda, but here I've centralized the Jasper
            // configuration into a separate class
            .UseJasper<JasperConfig>()

            .ConfigureWebHostDefaults(webBuilder =>
            {
                webBuilder.UseStartup();
            });
}

This isn’t mandatory, but there’s just enough Jasper configuration for this project with the outbox support that I opted to put the Jasper configuration in a new file called JasperConfig that inherits from JasperOptions:

public class JasperConfig : JasperOptions
{
    public override void Configure(IHostEnvironment hosting, IConfiguration config)
    {
        if (hosting.IsDevelopment())
        {
            // In development mode, we're just going to have the message persistence
            // schema objects dropped and rebuilt on app startup so you're
            // always starting from a clean slate
            Advanced.StorageProvisioning = StorageProvisioning.Rebuild;
        }

        // Just the normal work to get the connection string out of
        // application configuration
        var connectionString = config.GetConnectionString("sqlserver");

        // Setting up Sql Server-backed message persistence
        // This requires a reference to Jasper.Persistence.SqlServer
        Extensions.PersistMessagesWithSqlServer(connectionString);

        // Set up Entity Framework Core as the support
        // for Jasper's transactional middleware
        Extensions.UseEntityFrameworkCorePersistence();

        // Register the EF Core DbContext
        // You can register IoC services in this file in addition
        // to any kind of Startup.ConfigureServices() method,
        // but you probably only want to do it in one place or the 
        // other and not both.
        Services.AddDbContext(
            x => x.UseSqlServer(connectionString),

            // This is important! Using Singleton scoping
            // of the options allows Jasper + Lamar to significantly
            // optimize the runtime pipeline of the handlers that
            // use this DbContext type
            optionsLifetime:ServiceLifetime.Singleton);
    }
}

Returning a Response to the HTTP Request

In the UseJasperAsMediatorController controller, we just passed the command into Jasper and let MVC return an HTTP status code 200 with no other context. If instead, we wanted to send down the ItemCreated message as a response to the HTTP caller, we could change the controller code to this:

public class WithResponseController : ControllerBase
{
    private readonly ICommandBus _bus;

    public WithResponseController(ICommandBus bus)
    {
        _bus = bus;
    }

    [HttpPost("/items/create2")]
    public Task<ItemCreated> Create([FromBody] CreateItemCommand command)
    {
        // Using Jasper as a Mediator, and receive the
        // expected response from Jasper
        return _bus.Invoke<ItemCreated>(command);
    }
}

“Do it All Explicitly Controller”

Just for a comparison, here’s the CreateItemCommand workflow implemented inline in a controller action with explicit code to handle the Jasper “Outbox” support:

// This controller does all the transactional work and business
// logic all by itself
public class DoItAllMyselfItemController : ControllerBase
{
    private readonly IMessageContext _messaging;
    private readonly ItemsDbContext _db;

    public DoItAllMyselfItemController(IMessageContext messaging, ItemsDbContext db)
    {
        _messaging = messaging;
        _db = db;
    }

    [HttpPost("/items/create3")]
    public async Task Create([FromBody] CreateItemCommand command)
    {
        // Start the "Outbox" transaction
        await _messaging.EnlistInTransaction(_db);

        // Create a new Item entity
        var item = new Item
        {
            Name = command.Name
        };

        // Add the item to the current
        // DbContext unit of work
        _db.Items.Add(item);

        // Publish an event to anyone
        // who cares that a new Item has
        // been created
        var @event = new ItemCreated
        {
            Id = item.Id
        };

        // Because the message context is enlisted in an
        // "outbox" transaction, these outgoing messages are
        // held until the ongoing transaction completes
        await _messaging.Send(@event);

        // Commit the unit of work. This will persist
        // both the Item entity we created above, and
        // also a Jasper Envelope for the outgoing
        // ItemCreated message
        await _db.SaveChangesAsync();

        // After the DbContext transaction succeeds, kick out
        // the persisted messages in the context "outbox"
        await _messaging.SendAllQueuedOutgoingMessages();
    }
}

As a huge lesson learned from Jasper’s predecessor project, it’s always possible to easily bypass any kind of Jasper conventional “magic” and write explicit code as necessary.

There’s a lot more to say about Jasper and you can find a *lot* more information on its documentation website. I’ll be back sometime soon with more examples of Jasper, with probably some focus on functionality that goes beyond other mediator tools.

In the next post, I’ll talk about Jasper’s runtime execution pipeline and how it’s very different than other .Net tools with similar functionality (hint, it involves a boatload less generics magic than anything else).

 

3 thoughts on “Introducing Jasper as an In Process Command Bus for .Net

  1. Neal Webb

    Jeremy,

    I feel like I’m missing something subtle between the two Controller implementations. Other than class names, routes, and comments, they look exactly the same. I can’t find any meaningful difference that would result in a different response being sent to the client.

    Neal

    Reply
    1. jeremydmiller Post author

      I *think* that’s because WordPress cut off some of the generic arguments in the code sample. I just edited it. The signature with the response is `Task` and the call should have been `ICommandBus.Invoke(command)`.

      Sorry about that.

      Reply
  2. Craig Neuwirt

    Miruken (https://github.com/miruken-dotnet) is another framework that provides a superset of MediatR’s capabilities and requires no interface or base class to work. It’s an extremely generalized integration platform that uses messages/handlers at its core. It does use reflection to provide dynamic and contextual capabilities that are often difficult to achieve.

    Reply

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